Young drivers

Young drivers - particularly young male drivers - are at much higher risk of crashing than older drivers. Use this page to access research on the reasons for this high crash risk, ways in which young drivers are more susceptible to other driving risks such as distraction and speeding, and how young driver risk can be reduced.

Reducing casualties involving young drivers and riders in Europe
European Transport Safety Council (ETSC), Brussels, Belgium, 25/01/17

An analysis of the range of impairments and distractions likely to affect young drivers and riders, and recommendations on how to reduce the disproportionate risks they face.

Investigating risky, distracting and protective peer passenger effects in a dual process framework
Transport Research Institute, Hasselt University, Belgium, 21/05/16

The presence of peer passengers in the vehicles of young novice drivers has a negative effect on driver behaviour, increasing the likelihood of red-light running and speeding.

Road safety: young people's behaviour in Vila Nova de Famalicao
The Higher School of Nursing of Porto, Portugal, 09/05/16

A significant number of young people evidenced dangerous driving behaviours in a quantative study carried out in Portugal.

Selected state policies and associations with alcohol use and risky behaviours among youth: findings from monitoring the future survey
Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, USA, 26/03/16

The effects of graduated driver licensing extend beyond driving-related risk, influencing other behaviours that could pose immediate or long-term health risks for young people.

The predictive influence of youth assets on drinking and driving behaviors in adolescence and young adulthood
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Atlanta, USA, 16/01/16

Parental monitoring is the most important influence in reducing the likelihood of a young person drink-driving and travelling with a driver who has been drinking.

Do nighttime driving restrictions reduce criminal participation among teenagers? Evidence from graduated driver licensing
Association for Public Policy Analysis, USA, 14/01/16

Graduated driver licensing in the US has decreased criminal participation by 6% among teenagers aged 16 and 17, as published in the Journal of Policy Analysis and Management.

Vehicle choices for teenage drivers: A national survey of U.S. parents
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, USA, 29/07/15

Many young drivers in the US are driving older vehicles that lack the safety features that would benefit novice drivers.

Graduated driver licensing: searching for the best composition of components
Institute of Transport Economics, Norway, July 15

Research exploring the components of graduated driver licensing programmes, and their applicability in Brazil.

Are cellular phone blocking applications effective for novice teen drivers?
University of Minnesota, 29/07/15

A blocking app was effective in reducing calls and texts by teenage drivers, but they also tried to find ways around the software.

Graduated Driver Licensing and Criminal Participation Among Teenagers
University of Texas

Graduated driving licensing with night-time driving curfews reduce the number of arrests for non-motoring offences for 16 and 17 year olds by 5%.

A88 Young driver crash rates in Great Britain: trends and comparisons between countries
Public Health Wales, 16/07/15

The gap between young driver and older driver crash rates in the UK is narrowing, but remains large and indicate the need for graduated driving licensing.

Public transport and the next generation
NZ Transport Agency, June 2015

The generation born between 1979 and 1999 in New Zealand are using public transport more than previous generations, and this change is not temporary.

The influence of transport on well-being among teenagers: A photovoice project in New Zealand
University of Otago, 07/07/15

Transport has a role in how teenagers in New Zealand perceive their wellbeing, with those in urban areas able to walk to their destinations showing greater wellbeing that those in more isolated rural areas.

Are Millennials Really the “Go-Nowhere” Generation?
University of North Carolina, 27/07/15

There has been a decline in driving by Millennials more than other groups, the biggest contributing factor to which has been the changing attitudes to driving and the internet.

Young driver crash rates by licensing age, driving experience, and license phase.
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 20/05/15

The interaction between age and experience for young drivers in a graduated driver licensing programme in New Jersey is explored by the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

State All-Driver Distracted Driving Laws and High School Students' Texting While Driving Behavior
Purdue University, USA, 04/06/15

Laws that specifically targeting texting while driving, rather than general phone use, are effective at reducing texting at the wheel in high school students in the USA.

Teen Crashes Declined After Massachusetts Raised Penalties For Graduated Licensing Law Restricting Night Driving
Monash University, 01/06/15

When the penalties for breaking a law banning nighttime driving for novice drivers were raised, crashes by teenage drivers decreased.

History and Current Status of State Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) Laws in the United States
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, 2015

Graduated driving licencing has reduced teenage driver crashes, finds a review of the history of GDL in the US .

Survey shows support for action on young drivers
RoSPA, 19/05/15

71% of respondents in a national survey support phased or graduated driver licencing in the UK.

Comparison of novice and full-licenced driver common crash types in New South Wales, Australia, 2001–2011
Australian Institute of Health Innovation, 21/05/15

Strategies aimed at preventing crashes novice drivers will benefit more experienced drivers also, as the nature of their crashes is similar.

Can friendship serve as an impetus for safe driving among young drivers?
Bar-Ilan University, Israel, 23/03/15

Safe driving could be promoted among young people by relating it to being a good friend.

Cross-domain influences on youth risky driving behaviors: A developmental cascade analysis
University of Michigan, 09/04/15

Drug use among young people and their friends are predictors of future risky driving behaviour, indicating that drug awareness courses should also tackle road safety themes.

Impact of Georgia's Teenage and Adult Driver Responsibility Act: 15-year follow-up
Emory University, USA, 02/04/15

15 years after its introduction, Georgia’s graduated driver licensing law continues to be effective in reducing crashes.

Crashes involving young drivers
BMJ, 11/02/15

In the two years since the UK government promised a green paper on young drivers’ safety, 866 deaths or serious injuries involving young people could have been avoided, argue signatories of a letter to the BMJ.

Parents’ and peers’ contribution to risky driving of male teen drivers
Bar Ilan University, Israel, 06/03/15

Risky driving by young male drivers is influenced by their fathers’ attitudes and those of their peers.

Young drivers' perceptions of road safety messages and a high performance vehicle advertisement: a qualitative exploration
Imperial College London, 2015

Messages emphasising social loss are more effective for young male drivers, whereas physical loss is more effective for females.

Is Heightened Environmental Sensitivity Responsible for Drop in Young Adults' Rates of Driver's License Acquisition?
Imperial College London, 2015

The number of young people getting driving licences has declined in much of the developed world in recent decades, with 30% of them put off due to the costs of driving.

The impact and sustainability of the graduated driver licensing program in preventing motor vehicle crashes in Massachusetts
Massachusetts General Hospital, 01/02/15

Massachusetts’ graduated driving licencing programme is associated with a reduction in fatal crashes involving teenagers.

Traffic Injury Research Foundation, 2015

An evidence-based structure for graduated driving licencing, with one year supervised driving and one year solo driving.

Tracking progress in teenage driver crash risk in the United States since the advent of graduated driver licensing programs
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, USA, 09/02/15

Since the introduction of graduated driver licensing in the US, teenage crash risk has fallen.

Educating Teenage Drivers in the Pacific Northwest Regarding the Dangers of Distracted Driving
University of Washington, 15/9/2014

Young male drivers in the Netherlands are at most risk after midnight, yet drivers with multiple passengers are less likely to have drunk alcohol.

Nothing good ever happens after midnight: Observed exposure and alcohol use during weekend nights among young male drivers carrying passengers in a late licensing country
SWOV, the Netherlands, 22/11/14

Young male drivers in the Netherlands are at most risk after midnight, and are more likely to have drunk alcohol at this time.

Driving safety first: improving road safety for novice drivers
Goodyear, 02/10/14

A Europe-wide study of young drivers, their parents, and driving instructors, indicating the need for graduated driver licensing, is released.

Millennials in motion: changing travel habits of young Americans and the implications for public policy
U.S. PIRG, 01/10/14

Americans born between 1983 and 2000 are less car-focused than previous generations of young people, giving an opportunity for policy-makers to promote sustainable transport.

Back to (driving) school: more crashes and convictions for teens that skip driver ed
AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, 09/09/14

Teenagers who skip driver education courses are more likely to be involved in a crash than those who attend.

White Paper calls for EC to help raise awareness of parents’ role in educating their children about road safety
Goodyear, 02/10/14

Public campaigns to raise awareness of parents’ roles in encouraging safe driving would help improve young driver safety in Europe.

Evaluation of beginner driver education programs
AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, 01/09/14

Young drivers who complete classroom-based driver safety education before learning to drive have 4% fewer crashes and 40% fewer traffic convictions.

Interaction between socio-demographic characteristics: Traffic rule violations and traffic crash history for young drivers.
Ege University, 12/07/14

Young drivers in Turkey are twice as likely to have been in a crash in the past three years if they’ve been fined for failing to wear a seat belt in this time.

UK men aged 20-30 most likely to be disqualified from driving
Institute of Advanced Motorists, 13/08/14

In the UK, men aged 20-30 are the most likely to be disqualified from driving.

Road safety impact of Ontario street racing and stunt driving law
University of Western Ontario, 02/06/14

Casualties among young male drivers dropped by 58 per month on average in the three years after heavy penalties for street racing were introduced in Ontario, Canada.

The impact of the penalty point system on the behaviour of young drivers and passengers in Spain
University of Girona, 18/07/14

Speeding and drink driving decreased, and seat belt use increased, among young drivers in Spain following the introduction of a penalty points system for traffic offences, applying to all drivers, in 2006.

Traffic rule violations and traffic crash history for young drivers
Ege University, Turkey, 12/07/14

Young drivers who sometimes don’t wear seat belts are more likely to be involved in crashes than those who always belt up.

New research highlights need for graduated driving licensing
Transport Research Laboratory, 28/05/14

Drivers aged 17-19 make up 1.5% of UK licence holders but are involved in 12% of fatal and serious crashes.

Distracted Driver Behaviors and Distracting Conditions Among Adolescent Drivers
University of North Carolina, 17/04/14

Teenage drivers are six times more likely to have a serious incident when there is loud conversation in the vehicle, and three times more likely when passengers are ‘horsing around’.

Parents’ Good Driving Behavior Decreases Likelihood of Teen Crashes
Travelers Companies, 14/01/14

Teen US drivers whose parents do not demonstrate safe driving are more than twice as likely to crash as peers with good parental role models.

Risk Factors Associated with Injury Severity in Crashes Involving Young Drivers in New Zealand
University of Otago, 11/11/13

The risk of serious injury or death in young driver collisions is significantly higher if the driver is carrying a mix of male and female passengers than just male or just female passengers.

Reaction times of drivers distracted by mobile phone conversations
Queensland University of Technology, 21/09/13

Young drivers’ reaction times increase by 40% when talking on a hands-free or hand-held mobile phone.

Sleepy driving and pulling over for a rest: investigating individual factors that contribute to these driving behaviours
Queensland University of Technology, 16/09/13

Older drivers are more likely than younger drivers to pull over and rest if they feel tired when driving.

Anti-texting adverts should focus on death and dying
Washington State University, 12/09/13

Adverts with strong emotional references to death and dying are effective in convincing young drivers not to text and drive.

Young novice drivers to take more risks if their parents are risky drivers
Queensland University of Technology, 28/08/13

Young novice drivers are more likely to take risks if their parents do not penalise risky driving or are risky drivers themselves.

Young drivers: are they ready for the road?
Co-operative Insurance, 01/08/13

Six in 10 (62%) young drivers in the UK are in favour of a minimum learning period.

Access to safer vehicle technologies by young drivers
Centre for Automotive Safety Research, 31/07/13

Education on vehicle safety and rapid roll-out of new safety technologies by vehicle manufacturers would encourage younger drivers to purchase safer vehicles.

Requiring young drivers to stay on a learner licence for six months reduces fatal crashes
University of Michigan, 05/07/13

Requiring young drivers to stay on a learner licence for at least six months reduces fatal crashes among young drivers.

A third of fatal young driver crashes in the USA are speed-related
Governors Highway Safety Association, 25/06/13

A third of fatal young driver crashes in the USA are speed-related and could be tackled by speed cameras and stronger night time and passenger restrictions.

Talking to passengers makes young novice drivers more likely to crash
University of Guelph, 20/06/13

Talking to passengers makes young novice drivers more likely to crash.

80% of young novice drivers in the USA make or receive phone calls while driving
National Institutes of Health, 20/06/13

80% of young novice drivers in the USA make or receive phone calls while driving and 72% text.

Giving feedback to parents on their son's driving improves young male driver behaviour
Tel-Aviv University, 17/06/13

In-vehicle technology that records young driver behaviour and provides guidance to parents on how to influence their children’s driving encourages safer behaviour among young male drivers.

Young rural drivers are 44% more likely to be in an injury crash than young urban drivers
Road Safety Analysis, 30/05/13

Graduated licensing and improving public transport in rural areas would reduce crashes among young rural drivers, who are 44% more likely to be in an injury crash than young urban drivers.

84% of UK drivers are in favour of a minimum learning to drive period
Brake and Direct Line, 22/05/13

84% of UK drivers are in favour of a minimum learning to drive period to tackle young driver crashes.

Teenage drivers less likely to take risks driving when incidents are reported to parents
National Institutes of Health, USA, 01/02/13

Teenage drivers are less likely to engage in risky driving behaviour when in-vehicle data recording devices report incidents to their parents rather than just alerting the driver.

Adolescents exposed to drink driving are more likely to drink drive themselves
University of Melbourne, 29/01/13

12-17 year-olds who ride as a passenger with a drink driver are more likely to drink drive themselves.

Mandatory novice driver stickers reduce young driver crash rates
University of Pennsylvania, 25/01/13

Mandatory novice driver stickers reduced young driver crash rate in New Jersey by 9% by deterring breaches of graduated licensing laws.

Young drivers attitudes towards speeding get riskier as they gain more driving experience
University of Sheffield, 23/01/13

Young drivers develop riskier attitudes towards speeding as they gain more driving experience, so the learner driver period should be used to instill safer driving attitudes.

Graduated driver licensing can cut fatal young driver crashes by up to 45%
Transport Research Board, 17/01/13

Graduated driver licensing can cut fatal young driver crashes by up to 45% and night-time curfews are the most effective restriction.

Developing safer passengers through a school-based injury prevention program
Queensland University of Technology, 19/09/12

Teaching young people passenger safety skills encourages them to challenge friends’ risky behaviour.

Young drivers make fewer steering errors but take more risks as they gain experience
Centre for Automotive Safety Research, 31/08/12

As young drivers become more experienced they make fewer steering and positioning mistakes, but are more likely to speed and misjudge distance.

Basic vehicle checks
Brake, 24/08/12

One in four young UK drivers do not make basic vehicle safety checks before setting out on long journeys.

Young drivers at risk
The AA, 25/07/12

Almost a quarter of young drivers crash within six months of passing their test.

Young drivers at higher risk of crashing when carrying young passengers
AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, 31/05/12

16-17 year-old drivers’ risk of being killed in a crash is four times higher when carrying passengers aged under 21 than when driving alone.

Young driver safety
CARRS-Q, 05/04/12

Drink driving campaigns should capitalise on young female passengers’ propensity to intervene in driver behaviour.

Young drivers from rural areas more likely to crash than their urban counterparts
Road Safety Analysis, 24/02/12

Young drivers from rural areas are 37% more likely to be involved in an injury collision than young drivers from urban areas.

Social networking site helps change behaviour
National Center for Biotechnology Information, 11/11/11

62% of under 24 year-olds report changing their driving behaviour as a result of road safety Facebook groups.

ACPO summer drink and drug driving results
Association of Chief Police Officers, 01/08/11

UK drink driving offences by young drivers has increased by 15% from the same period in 2010.

One in 60 young male drivers in crashes that kill and injure each year
Brake, 01/07/11

One young male driver in every 60 experiences a road crash involving the death or injury of themselves, a passenger or another road user each year in Britain.

The role of parental alcohol consumption on driving under the influence of alcohol
The Institute for Child Health Policy, 19/06/11

Alcohol use by parents predicts drink driving offending.

Identifying Factors That Predict Teen Driver Crashes
North Dakota State University, 27/05/11

Novice drivers are 25 times more likely to be involved in an injury or fatal crash in the first year after they pass their test if they previously had a damage only crash.

Effects of Pay-As-You-Drive vehicle insurance on young drivers’ speed choice
The University of Groningen, 27/05/11

Pay-as-you-drive vehicle insurance reduces young drivers speed violations by 14%.

A social network analysis of alcohol-impaired drivers in Maryland: an egocentric approach
The University of Maryland, 26/05/11

Campaigns to prevent drink driving in young people should demonstrate how peers can intervene to prevent a friend getting behind the wheel after drinking.

Campaign for action on young driver crashes launched at start of UN Decade of Action
Brake, 18/05/11

Four in 10 young people in the UK think it's acceptable to drive at 40mph in a 30mph limit some or all of the time.

Effects of higher-order driving skill training on young, inexperienced drivers
The University of Waikato, 13/05/11

Young driver skills training improves vehicle control and speed choice but has no effect on hazard perception, attitudes or driver confidence.

Repairing faulty scripts to reduce speeding behaviour in young drivers
The University of New South Wales, 22/04/11

Personalised feedback on simulated driving tasks can reduce speeding in young drivers.

The efficacy of road safety education in schools: A review of current approaches
Centre for Automotive Safety Research, 04/04/11

Road safety education that promotes early driving negates gains in knowledge by increasing exposure to crash risk.

Effects of Pay-As-You-Drive vehicle insurance on young drivers’ speed choice
University of Groningen, 04/04/11

Speeding violations by young Dutch drivers was reduced by 14% through an insurance incentive scheme.

Fatigue and Road Safety: A Critical Analysis of Recent Evidence
UK Department for Transport, 28/02/11

Young male drivers are over represented in fatigue related crashes due to increased levels of night time driving.

Excellent gamer, excellent driver? The impact of adolescents’ video game playing
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 11/02/11

Adolescents who play computer racing games are more likely to exhibit risky driving behaviour in the future.

“At least I’m not drink-driving”: Formative research for a social marketing campaign
University of Wollongong, Australia, 28/01/11

Many young people think drug-driving is safer than drink-driving or can even improve their overall driving ability.

Seat Belt Use Among Overweight and Obese Adolescents
The University of Toledo, 14/01/11

In the US, Obese adolescent passengers are 72% more likely to never or rarely wear their seat belts as normal weight adolescent passengers.

Evaluation of programs teaching senior high school students the effects of drink driving
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, 07/12/10

Young people should be encouraged to discuss drink driving to empower them to make positive behavioural decisions.

Do perceptions of effective distractive driving public service announcements differ
Florida College of Medicine, 10/11/10

Media road safety campaigns aimed at young drivers should include teen consultation in order to maximise their effectiveness.

Impact of education, training and publicity on young and emerging drivers
Devon County Council, 29/10/10

Driving at night, carrying passengers and speeding are the highest contributing factors for collisions involving young drivers.

The Effect of Feedback on Attitudes Toward Cellular Phone Use While Driving
Tsinghua University, 08/10/10

Driving simulator feedback produces short-term benefits in novice drivers but is more effective in the long-term for more experienced drivers.

The Effects of Text Messaging on Young Drivers
Monash University Accident Research Centre, 01/09/10

Previous research has shown that the risk of crashing while dialing a handheld device, such as when text messaging and driving, is more than double that of conversing on a mobile phone.

Novice Drivers' Risky Driving Behavior, Risk Perception, and Crash Risk
The George Institute for International Health, 01/09/10

The overrepresentation of youths in crashes involving casualties is a significant public health issue. Risky driving behavior is strongly linked to crash risk among young drivers.

Turning 21 and the Associated Changes in Drinking and Driving
The University of Texas at Austin, 16/08/10

Drink driving increases at the legal drinking age despite the amount of alcohol consumed decreasing.

Adolescents and Driving: A Position Paper of the Society for Adolescent Health & Medicine
Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine, 30/07/10

US health care providers should advise children and adolescents on road safety.

Speeding young drivers a major menace on roads, finds research
Brake, 30/06/10

One in five British 14-25 year olds have raced on a public road as a driver or passenger.

Development of a speeding related crash typology
Highway Safety Information System, 07/06/10

Night time single vehicle crashes on curved roads by young males are typical of speed related fatal crashes in the US.

A longitudinal study of calibration in young novice drivers
The Institute for Road Safety Research (SWOV), 16/03/10

50% of 'overconfident' novice drivers reported one or more crashes in their second year of driving compared to 10% of 'insecure' novice drivers.

Vehicle safety and young drivers
Monash University Accident Research Centre, 14/02/10

Young women are 13% more likely than the average driver to be killed or seriously injured if they crash because they drive older and smaller cars.

Reported Road Casualties: Great Britain 2008
Department for Transport, 09/10/09

Exceeding the speed limit was a factor in 41% of all crashes in which males aged 16–25 were killed in Britain in 2008.

Reported Road Casualties: Great Britain 2008
Department for Transport, 09/10/09

In 2008, exceeding the speed limit was a factor in 41% of all crashes in which males aged 16 – 25 were killed.

Do drivers become less risk-prone after answering a questionnaire on risky driving?
Stockholm University, 20/08/09

Young male drivers become less risk-prone after answering a questionnaire on risky driving behaviour.

Is driving under the influence of cannabis becoming a greater risk to driver safety
University of Otago, New Zealand, 21/04/09

Amongst 21-25 year olds, driving under the influence of cannabis may now be a greater risk than driving under the influence of alcohol.

Can younger drivers be trained to scan for information that will reduce their risk
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, 30/03/09

Young drivers given computer-based hazard training were more likely to scan for potential hazards on the open road than those not given the training.

Trends and subgroup differences in transportation-related injury risk and safety behaviors
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 30/03/09

The percentage of US high school students who don’t use seat belts or drive after drinking alcohol has decreased, but many students are still putting themselves at risk.

Building on success: improving the delivery of road safety education, training
Department for Transport, UK, 28/02/09

There is variability in UK local government funding for road safety education and secondary schools are likely to perceive road safety education as a lower priority than other safety teaching.

Young drink drivers think they will escape enforcement
Brake, UK, 26/12/08

Young UK drivers are more likely than older driers to think there is no chance of being caught if they drink and drive.

Adolescent drivers: A developmental perspective on risk, proficiency, and safety
University of Michigan, 01/09/08

Initiatives aimed at young drivers should utilise the contexts of importance to adolescents - parents, peers, and the broader culture of driving - to support safe driving and to manage the risks.

Pre-driving adolescent attitudes: Can they change?
Heriot-Watt University, 26/08/08

Adolescent attitudes and intentions towards driving remain fluid such that they may be positively influenced through pre-driver interventions, even if only temporarily.

Road Safety Research Report No.86. Feeling safe, itching to drive
Department for Transport, UK, 01/05/08

Focuses on understanding pre-drivers’ and learners’ definitions of good driving and their expectations and/or experiences of the learning process.

CCIS final reports on crash analysis
Cooperative Crash Injury Study (TRL and Birmingham University, UK), 01/01/08

Studies of crashes found young drivers were less likely to wear weat belts and more likely to be in old vehicles.

Personality factors as predictors of persistent risky driving behavior
Dunedin School of Medicine, 01/12/07

Road-safety interventions seeking to deter young adult males from persistent risky driving behavior need to be directed at those who do not endorse traditional views.

Temporal Patterns of Crashes of 16-17 Year-Old Drivers in Fairfax County, Virginia
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, 30/11/07

Studies higher crash rates by young people on their commute to colleges and reports on initiatives introduced by US schools to reduce road crash involvement among students around their premises.

Masculinity causes speeding in young men
University of Neuchatel, 22/10/07

Results showed that when the concept of masculinity was activated by priming, participants’ driving speed increased significantly from the beginning to the end of the driving simulation.

Connecting with young people
Road Safety GB, 12/10/07

Focus group study finding young drivers in Britain are receptive to safe driving campaigns that focus on the risk of hurting a friend, feature striking images and use a direct questions.

Reference pending
Brake, 12/10/07

Six in ten drivers aged 17-24 (60%) admit breaking 30mph limits by at least five miles an hour on a weekly basis, compared to 37% of drivers aged 25 and older, finds this driver survey.

Connecting with young people
Road Safety GB, 12/10/07

Focus group study finding young drivers in Britain are receptive to safe driving campaigns that focus on the risk of hurting a friend, feature striking images and use a direct questions.

Identifying social mechanisms for the prevention of adolescent drinking and driving
Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, 19/09/07

Parental influence to deter drink driving remains important even through late adolescence.

Relationships between young drivers’ personality characteristics, perceptions, and driving
University of Southern Queensland, 17/09/07

Road safety interventions should examine whether they strengthen young drivers’ appreciation of the impact of their actions on others through positive reinforcement of altruistic norms.

Australian Temperament Project
Australian Institute of Family Studies, 23/08/07

This longitudinal study finds young drivers who take high risks are likely to have behavioural difficulties in early adolescence.

Australian Temperament Project
Australian Institute of Family Studies, 23/08/07

This longitudinal study finds young drivers who take high risks are likely to have behavioural difficulties in early adolescence.

Pre-driver Education: Survey of Pre-driver Education Provision
Department for Transport, 01/03/07

Finds that out of 173 UK road safety teams, 122 (71%) had a pre-driver education initiative in place and 51 (29%) did not.

Pre-driver Education:A Critical Review of the Literature
Department for Transport, UK, 01/03/07

Road transport based attitude change initiatives are more successful when they include active participation and discussion, the use of personal experiences and reflective thinking.

The Good, the Bad and the Talented: Young Drivers?
Department for Transport, UK, 18/12/06

Young drivers think passing the driving test has little to do with competence and take the view that it is only after passing that you start to learn to drive.

Traffic behaviour among adolescents using mopeds and light motorcycles
University of Stavanger, 02/09/06

A thorough understanding of social and cultural factors related to the powered-two-wheeler driving is necessary for the industry to develop targeted and efficient safety measures.

Young driver accidents in the UK: the influence of age, experience, and time of day
The University of Nottingham, 05/04/06

Loss of control on curves and crashes in darkness were found to be a particular problem for younger drivers. Time of day.

The effects of text messaging on young novice driver performance
Monash University Accident Research Centre, 01/01/06

Texting young drivers spent 400% more time with their eyes off the road when texting, than when not texting.

Psychosocial influences on drug driving in young Australian drivers
Queensland University of Technology, 07/12/05

Perceptions about detection and punishment are an important influence upon drug driving behaviour for young drivers.

Voluntary risk taking and skill deficits in young driver accidents in the UK
The University of Nottingham, 01/05/05

Young driver crashes of all types are found to be frequently the result of 'risk taking' factors as opposed to 'skill deficit' factors.

Voluntary risk taking and skill deficits in young driver accidents in the UK
The University of Nottingham, 01/05/05

Young driver crashes of all types are found to be frequently the result of 'risk taking' factors as opposed to 'skill deficit' factors.

Evaluation of Brake Young Driver Education Scheme
Transport Research Institute, Napier University, 01/01/05

Provides recommendations for the roll-out of this scheme, which provides powerful educational workshops to young people about the dangers of driving delivered by community volunteers.

Team training for safer young drivers and passengers in the ACT
Monash University Accident Research Centre, 01/01/05

The air safety concept of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training may increase passengers’ ability to positively influence novice driver behaviour.

Development of a model resource for parents as supervisory drivers
Monash University Accident Research Centre, 01/01/05

Assesses the possibility of introducing the following options for parents of novice drivers: linking to a well-visited website, a connection to the licensing process and a parent education programme.

Learner driver experience project
Monash University Accident Research Centre, 01/01/04

Novice drivers are poorer in detecting hazards than experienced drivers.

Involvement of 21-26 year olds in drink-driving behaviour
Monash University Accident Research Centre, 01/01/03

Novice drivers are over-represented in alcohol-related fatal crashes and male drivers were particularly over-represented.

Young driver characteristics and capabilities
Federal Highway Administration, 14/08/01

Young drivers are slow to switch between driving tasks, slower to detect hazards and likely to perceive less risk than experienced drivers, and are easily distracted by non-driving events.

Effects of violent video games on aggressive behaviour, aggressive cognition
Iowa State University, 01/01/01

Finds exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings.

Evaluation of an insight driver-training program for young drivers
Monash University Accident Research Centre, 01/01/01

A training programme that provides greater insight and awareness of risks, helps target over-confidence rather than advanced driving skills.

Evaluation of pre-driver training program
Monash Accident Research Centre, 01/01/00

Completing a pre-driver education programme with an in-car component led to a non-significant reduction in crashes and a non-significant increase in traffic offences.

Speed and young drivers: Developing countermeasures to target excessive speed
Monash University Accident Research Centre, 01/01/99

Factors other than enforcement contribute to speeding behaviour of young drivers, so enforcement alone is not the answer.

Investigation of traffic safety education in Victorian schools
Monash Accident Research Centre, 01/01/97

Education about the dangers of roads is conducted at lower levels in Australian secondary schools than in primary schools schools and teachers had a mixed attitude to road safety education.

Young driver research strategy
Monash University Accident Research Centre, 01/02/96

Explores ways of tackling young driver injury and death in Australia.

Young driver research program: The influence of age-related and experience-related factors
Monash University Accident Research Centre, 01/01/94

Recklessness is a better predictor of young driver crash involvement than age and suggests recommendations for countermeasure development.

Young driver research program: A review of information on young driver performance
Monash University Accident Research Centre, 01/01/94

Young drivers’ skills are less developed than those of older drivers.

Young driver research program: A review of information on young driver crashes
Monash University Accident Research Centre, 01/01/94

Analyses crash data in relation to driver age, experience and gender, time of crash occurrence, passenger characteristics, crash type, pre-crash vehicle manoeuvres, driver errors, and alcohol.

Young driver research program: Overview report
Monash University Accident Research Centre, 01/01/93

Finds that there are three basic ways in which the improvement of young driver safety can be tackled: raising their level of driving skill, changing their personal approach to driving.

Injuries sustained by young people in Victoria, 1986-1992.
Monash University Accident Research Centre, 01/01/92

Finds that road crashes were a major cause of severe injury, deaths and hospital admissions for both adolescents (15-19) and young adults (20-24).

The risk of driver crash involvement as a function of driver age
Monash University Accident Research Centre, 01/01/92

Finds that there is increased risk of crash involvement for younger drivers.

An overview of novice driver performance issues - A Literature Review
Monash University Accident Research Centre, 01/01/89

Literature review of young driver behavioural issues.



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